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Writing a Bibliography - Harvard System

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What is a bibliography?
  • A bibliography is an alphabetical list of the sources - books, magazines, newspapers, CD-ROMs, websites, interviews, etc. - that we have used to prepare a piece of work.

Why do we write bibliographies?
  • To acknowledge our sources.
  • To give our readers information to identify and consult our sources.
  • To make sure our information is accurate.

What if we don't include a bibliography?
  • We may be accused of plagiarism (that is, stealing another person's ideas or writing).
  • If so, we may lose some or all of the marks for an assignment or a course.

Bibliographic Entries:

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Name of author/s (surname, initial or first name) Year of publication, Title, Publisher, Place of publication.

Gaiman, N. 2013, The ocean at the end of the lane, Headline, London.

Clarke, S., Hopkins, D. & Walmsley, J. 2012, The night sky, Southern Books, Sydney.

Art and artists 2011, Greenstreet, New York.

Healey, J. (ed.) 2014, Water resources and rights, Spinney Press, Thirroul.

No author? Enter the work under the title, followed by the year.
No date? Write n.d.
No publisher? Write n.pub.
No place? Write n.p.


Name of author/s Year of publication, ' Title of article', Magazine name, volume, issue no. (or date), page no/s.

Zimmer, C. 2014, ‘Secrets of the brain’, National Geographic, February,pp.28-58.

Anderson, K. 2012, ‘Whale migration’, Oceanic Studies, vol.3, no.2, pp.6-8.

Online journal articles from websites

All details as above – then include when you viewed the website and the URL.

Woo, M. 2013, ‘Solar power in cool climates’, Design Digest, March, viewed 2 May 2014, <www.designdigest/file/mar>

Journal articles in online databases

Author Year, ‘Article title’, Journal/Newspaper title,
volume, issue (or date), viewed Day Month Year, Name of database service, Name of database, item number (if given).

Wiseman, R. 2014, ‘The dream catcher’, New Scientist, vol. 221, issue 2962,viewed 12 May 2014, Ebscohost, Academic
Search Premier, 10.1625/0033.


Name of author/s Year of publication, 'Title of article', Newspaper name, day and month, page no/s.

Hannam, P. 2014, ‘Scientists warn of big sea-ice changes’, Sydney Morning Herald, 7 January, p. 8.

Online newspaper articles

Ashton, S. 2013, ‘Parklands preserved for future’, Northern Times, 7 June, viewed 10 October 2013, <www.northerntimes.com/parklands10>


Name of author/s Year of publication, Title of webpage, viewed day month year, <URL>

Chester, K. 2013, Mountain walks of the high country, viewed 3 March 2014, <www.outdoorfest.net.au/walking>

Websites with no author – put the title first:

Sea kayaking adventures 2014, viewed 12 April 2014, <www.kayaker.net.au/trips>

Happiness is catching 2012, viewed 6 January 2014, <www.happylife.com/85974>


Write the title of the Wikipedia page, then scroll to the bottom of the page to find the latest date.

Nelson Mandela 2014, viewed 5 June 2014,


‘Title of article’, Encyclopedia title Year of publication, publisher, place of publication, vol. no., page no/s.

‘Amazon rainforest’, World Book Encyclopedia 2012, World Book, Chicago, vol. 1, pp. 401-402.


Title of video Year, viewed day month year, <URL>

Climate change: the state of the science 2014, viewed 1 August 2014, <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_EWOrZQ3L-c>


How your memory works 2009, television program, ABC, Canberra, 15 May.

Online TV programs:

My own choice 2013, television program, ABC1, 17 September, viewed 18 May 2014, <http://www.abc.net.au/4corners/stories/2013/09/16/3847237.htm>


Name of author/editor Year of publication, Title, edition, DVD/CD-ROM/CD, Publisher, Place of Publication.

List films under their title.

The kite runner 2007, DVD, Paramount Home
  • Entertainment, Sydney.

Pink Floyd 2011, The dark side of the moon, CD,
  • Parlophone, London.

Walding, R., Rapkins, G. and Rossiter, G. 2004,
  • New century senior physics, 2nd edn.,
  • CD-ROM, Oxford University Press, Melbourne.

Changing Australia: the union story 2005,
  • CD-ROM, n.pub., n.p.


Title of image (or description) Year, name of source/organisation, viewed day month year, <URL>

Humpback whale 2013, World Wildlife Fund, viewed 15 February 2014,
< http://www.worldwildlife.org/species/whale>

Annotating a Bibliography

To annotate a bibliography add a brief (usually about 150 words) descriptive and evaluative paragraph to each item in your bibliography. The purpose of the annotation is to inform the reader of the relevance, accuracy, and quality of the items referenced.

Here is an example:

Armstrong, T. 1994, Multiple intelligences in the classroom,
Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development,
Alexandria, VA.

Armstrong describes each of seven intelligences identified
by Howard Gardner. He offers an informal checklist for
identifying personal strengths in the intelligences and
suggests classroom applications. This book is a valuable
tool for teachers at any level, with concrete suggestions
for classroom applications.

Textual References

This page shows how to add Textual References or Citations to a presentation.

These university websites have many other examples:

Harvard citation style (University of Western Australia Library)
Harvard (author-date) style examples (Monash University Library)
Harvard: a guide to referencing (Victoria University)
Harvard Referencing Tutorial (Cardiff University)

Created: 14/1/2008 | Last updated: 24/9/2014 | URL: http://dckclib.wikispaces.com/bibliog
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