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Writing a Bibliography - Harvard System
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What is a bibliography?
A bibliography is an alphabetical list of the sources - books, magazines, newspapers, CD-ROMs, websites, interviews, etc. - that we have used to prepare a piece of work.
Why do we write bibliographies?
To acknowledge our sources.
To give our readers information to identify and consult our sources.
To make sure our information is accurate.
What if we don't include a bibliography?
We may be accused of plagiarism (that is, stealing another person's ideas or writing).
If so, we may lose some or all of the marks for an assignment or a course.
Name of author/s (surname, initial or first name) Year of publication,
, Publisher, Place of publication.
Gaiman, N. 2013,
The ocean at the end of the lane
, Headline, London.
Clarke, S., Hopkins, D. & Walmsley, J. 2012,
The night sky
, Southern Books, Sydney.
Art and artists
2011, Greenstreet, New York.
Healey, J. (ed.) 2014,
Water resources and rights
, Spinney Press, Thirroul.
Enter the work under the title, followed by the year.
JOURNAL & MAGAZINE ARTICLES
Name of author/s Year of publication, ' Title of article',
, volume, issue no. (or date), page no/s.
Zimmer, C. 2014, ‘Secrets of the brain’,
Anderson, K. 2012, ‘Whale migration’,
, vol.3, no.2, pp.6-8.
Online journal articles from websites
All details as above – then include when you viewed the website and the URL.
Woo, M. 2013, ‘Solar power in cool climates’,
, March, viewed 2 May 2014, <www.designdigest/file/mar>
Journal articles in online databases
Author Year, ‘Article title’,
volume, issue (or date), viewed Day Month Year, Name of database service, Name of database, item number (if given).
Wiseman, R. 2014, ‘The dream catcher’,
, vol. 221, issue 2962,viewed 12 May 2014, Ebscohost, Academic
Search Premier, 10.1625/0033.
Name of author/s Year of publication, 'Title of article',
, day and month, page no/s.
Hannam, P. 2014, ‘Scientists warn of big sea-ice changes’,
Sydney Morning Herald
, 7 January, p. 8.
Online newspaper articles
Ashton, S. 2013, ‘Parklands preserved for future’,
, 7 June, viewed 10 October 2013, <www.northerntimes.com/parklands10>
Name of author/s Year of publication,
Title of webpage
, viewed day month year, <URL>
Chester, K. 2013,
Mountain walks of the high country
, viewed 3 March 2014, <www.outdoorfest.net.au/walking>
Websites with no author – put the title first:
Sea kayaking adventures
2014, viewed 12 April 2014, <www.kayaker.net.au/trips>
Happiness is catching
2012, viewed 6 January 2014, <www.happylife.com/85974>
Write the title of the Wikipedia page, then scroll to the bottom of the page to find the latest date.
2014, viewed 5 June 2014,
‘Title of article’,
Year of publication, publisher, place of publication, vol. no., page no/s.
World Book Encyclopedia
2012, World Book, Chicago, vol. 1, pp. 401-402.
Title of video
Year, viewed day month year, <URL>
Climate change: the state of the science 2014
, viewed 1 August 2014, <
How your memory works 2009
, television program, ABC, Canberra, 15 May.
Online TV programs:
My own choice
2013, television program, ABC1, 17 September, viewed 18 May 2014, <
DVDS, CDs and CD-ROMS
Name of author/editor Year of publication,
, edition, DVD/CD-ROM/CD, Publisher, Place of Publication.
List films under their
The kite runner
2007, DVD, Paramount Home
Pink Floyd 2011,
The dark side of the moon
Walding, R., Rapkins, G. and Rossiter, G. 2004,
New century senior physics
, 2nd edn.,
CD-ROM, Oxford University Press, Melbourne.
Changing Australia: the union story
CD-ROM, n.pub., n.p.
Title of image (or description)
Year, name of source/organisation, viewed day month year, <URL>
Humpback whale 2013
, World Wildlife Fund, viewed 15 February 2014,
Annotating a Bibliography
To annotate a bibliography add a brief (usually about 150 words) descriptive and evaluative paragraph to each item in your bibliography. The purpose of the annotation is to inform the reader of the relevance, accuracy, and quality of the items referenced.
Here is an example:
Multiple intelligences in the classroom,
Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development,
Armstrong describes each of seven intelligences identified
by Howard Gardner. He offers an informal checklist for
identifying personal strengths in the intelligences and
suggests classroom applications. This book is a valuable
tool for teachers at any level, with concrete suggestions
for classroom applications.
This page shows how to add
or Citations to a presentation.
These university websites have many other examples:
Harvard citation style
(University of Western Australia Library)
Harvard (author-date) style examples
(Monash University Library)
Harvard: a guide to referencing
Harvard Referencing Tutorial
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